Curvularia lunata, aspergillus parasiticus and mucor spp. Evaluation of curvularia lunata as an biological control. This study contributes to the taxonomical and clinical knowledge of this genus by describing two new curvularia species based on isolates from corneal scrapings of south indian fungal keratitis patients. Apr 11, 2020 curvularia is a fungal genus primarily native to tropical and subtropical regions, although some species live in temperate zones. Curvularia is a rich genus in host range and geographic distribution compared to bipolaris. Methods in an experimental in vitro study, clinical isolates of fusarium, aspergillus, candida and curvularia spp were maintained on sabouraud dextrose. Little is known about these pathogens and whether they are primary or secondary to leaf spot development. Susceptible turfgrass wintergrass, kentucky bluegrass, bentgrass, fescue, couch. Curvularia species are commonly isolated from soil and living or dead parts of plants. However, curvularia nodosa can be easily distinguished by the production of knotted hyphae in culture.
Type i asthma and hay fever a relatively common cause of allergic fungal sinusitis. Isolates originated from infected leaves of bermudagrass. Mycotic keratitis due to curvularia senegalensis and in. However, more than 10 species of this genus have been reported to cause opportunistic. Gladioluscurvularia leaf spot pacific northwest pest. The patient was presumed cured after a corneal transplant and treatment with itraconazole, but the infection. Curvularia is a hyphomycete associated with over 60 host genera manamgoda et al.
It is therefore important to determine the species distribution and characteristics of endophytic fungi in tobacco. Methods in an experimental in vitro study, clinical isolates of fusarium, aspergillus, candida and curvularia spp were. Curvularia nodosa is known from three different hosts, namely from brachiaria reptans, chloris barbata and digitaria ciliaris. These are curvularia lunata, curvularia pallescens and curvularia geniculata curvularia lunata. Phaeohyphomycosis is the general term for infections caused by dematiaceous fungi. Species members from the genus phoma are ubiquitous and often found as class 2 endophytes that occupy similar ecological niches as curvularia spp. Most kinds of mold grow and spread quickly, but according to the university of adelaide website, this particular strain of mold grows especially fast. This fungus carries a dsrna mycovirus curvularia thermal tolerance virus and. Here, two parasitic fungi leptosphaerulina chartarum and curvularia trifolii were isolated and identified from normal tobacco tissue. Individual leaves initially show yellow and green dappled patterns that extend downwards from the leaf tip. However, to our knowledge, this is the first reported case series of invasive curvularia infection in children with lymphoid malignancy, and these cases emphasize the important role of directtissue or isolate sequencing for.
Learn how to control curvularia spp with these easy to use products. The anamorph of this fungus is known as curvularia lunata, while cochliobolus lunatus denotes the teleomorph or sexual state. India among the various flowering plants that provides. Invasive curvularia infection in pediatric patients with. Secondary metabolites biosynthesized by pure cultures of three soilhabitat fungi. Aim to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations mics of voriconazole and natamycin, alone and in combination, against the clinical isolates of fungus and to evaluate the synergy between the drugs in an experimental in vitro study. A phylogenetic analysis of the genera bipolaris and curvularia has resulted. In vitro evaluation of fungicides and organics against. Az phoenix nvlap lab code 2008110 ca huntington beach nvlap lab code 10840 ca inland empire nvlap lab code 6002390 ca pasadena nvlap lab code 2002320 ca san diego nvlap lab code 2008550 ca san leandro nvlap lab code 1010483 canada calgary, alberta nvlap lab code 500 canada montreal, quebec nvlap lab code. Curvularia species, common inhabitants of dead plant material, are causative agents of fungal keratitis, sinusitis, onychomycosis, black grain mycetoma, subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis, peritonitis and systemic phaeohyphomycosis, with many infections occurring in apparently immunocompetent hosts. Most commonly found on low cut turf grasses like golf and bowling greens. Comparative mitochondrial genome analysis of the tobacco. Natural habitats plant saprobe and pathogen to cereal plants soil suitable substrates in the indoor environment paper wood products water activity unknown mode of dissemination wind allergenic potential type i asthma and hay fever a relatively common cause of. Curvularia definition of curvularia by medical dictionary.
Pdf two new curvularia species from northern thailand. Dematiaceous hyphomycete producing sympodial, pale brown, cylindrical or slightly curved phragmoconidia, with one of the cent. Natural habitats plant saprobe and pathogen to cereal plants soil suitable substrates in the indoor environment paper wood products water activity unknown mode of dissemination wind. Curvularia is a dematiaceous fungus that is ubiquitous among soil and vegetation in temperate areas and has only recently been revealed to cause human disease. Curvulamine is more selectively antibacterial than tinidazole and biosynthetically unique in the new extenders formed through a decarboxylative condensation between an oligoketide motif. Curvularia protuberata is an endophyte of dichantelium lanuginosum marquez et al. Comparative survival of conidia of eight species of. Curvularia is a dematiaceous fungus found ubiquitously in soil.
Mold can be obvious like a leak behind a washing machine,water heater or under a sink or it can be hidden behind drywall or wallpaper. Mycotic keratitis due to curvularia senegalensis and in vitro. Health concerns with curvularia is it a potential allergen. Example of common leaf tip necrosis of cut leaves 24 to 48 h after inoculation with bipolaris spp. In vitro synergy of natamycin and voriconazole against.
Curvularia lunata is a causative agent of onychomycosis, dialysisassociated peritonitis, eumycotic mycetoma, mycotic keratitis and sinusitis, subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis, and systemic phaeohyphomycosis, including disseminated disease. This case represents the third known reported infection caused by this rare species. As well as being a contaminant, curvularia may cause infections in both humans and animals 1219, 1295, 1806, 2144. Bipolaris and curvularia asexual states are most commonly recorded as endophytes. Fungal colonies were grown on difco cornmeal agar difco labs, detroit, mi.
The objectives are to isolate and characterize curvularia and related species from leaf spot of rice by using morphological and molecular characterization and to determine the phylogenetic relationship between the isolated fungi. Most species of curvularia are facultative pathogens of soil, plants, and cereals in tropical or subtropical areas, while the remaining few are found in temperate zones. Three isolates each of eight species of bipolaris, curvularia, and exserohilum, as used in a previous study pratt, 2003, were grown together in mixed cultures to obtain multiisolate colonies of each species. In vitro evaluation of fungicides and organics against curvularia lunata and curvularia pallescens causing leaf blight in gladiolus d. Fungal isolation was done from diseased rice leaves showing leaf spot symptoms collected throughout peninsular malaysia. Pawar department of plant pathology, college of agriculture, dr. The teleomorphic state of the type species curvularia lunata is cochliobolus lunatus fam. A leaf spot symptom of rice is one of the common symptoms found in the rice field and caused reduction of rice yield. These fungi are primarily of interest in their role as plant pathogens, as they can cause severe damage to a variety of crops. Reports of human disease caused by this organism are rare but include. In a previous study we used morphology and sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region its and the glyceraldehyde3phosphate dehydrogenase gpd gene to identify species within a set of 99 clinical curvularia isolates from the usa. Most curvularia are found in tropical regions, though a few are found in temperate zones curvularia defined by the type species c.
Curvularia is a species of mold that relate mostly to subtropical and tropical plant parasites however, three ubiquitous species have been recovered from human infections, principally from cases of mycotic keratitis. Curvularia is a hyphomycete fungus which is a facultative pathogen, or beneficial partner of many plant species and common in soil. Curvularia species are important phytopathogens reported worldwide. In this study, curvularia affinis was isolated from the leaves of phaseolus vulgaris l. Cochliobolus lunatus is the most commonly reported species in clinical cases of reported. In tobacco plants, symbiont endophytic fungi are widely distributed in all tissues where they play important roles. Curvularia leaf spot ppfsagc09 curvularia leaf spot has a broad host range, and other grass species can play a role in disease development in other countries. There is no clear morphological boundary between the asexual genera bipolaris and curvularia, and some species.
Most kinds of mold grow and spread quickly, but according to the university of adelaide website, this particular strain of. The white croaker argyrosomus argentatus derived curvularia sp. The taxonomy of this complex is confusing as frequent nomenclatural changes and refinements have occurred. The fungus showed a highest homology to curvularia sp. New species and records of bipolaris and curvularia from. It forms a mutualistic relationship with dichanthelium lanuginosum panic grass and curvularia thermal tolerance virus that allows the grass to grow in soils that are far warmer than it normally tolerates. The patient was presumed cured after a corneal transplant and treatment with itraconazole, but the infection recurred and the patient is. Ifbz10 produces curvulamine as a skeletally unprecedented alkaloid incorporating two undescribed extender units. However, the role of these hosts in curvularia leaf spot development in the united states is still unknown. Evaluation of curvularia lunata as an biological control agent in major weeds. Hence, curvularia lunata can be considered as a probable agent for the biological control of alisma plantagoaquatica, echinochloa spp. Oct 30, 20 fungal peritonitis associated with curvularia geniculata and pithomyces species in a patient with. Household mold symptoms final thoughts if you are experiencing any of the symptoms of mold exposure listed above it would be wise to do a home mold inspection and look for signs of mold. To date, however, only five known reports of endophthalmitis caused by curvularia spp.
Curvularia is a fungal genus primarily native to tropical and subtropical regions, although some species live in temperate zones. Since that time, curvularia has been reported as a cause of disease in the upper respiratory tract 3, 9, 15, lower respiratory. In many countries, agricultural residues are generated in large quantities, and most of these are underutilized and considered waste, especially in developing countries. A phylogenetic and taxonomic reevaluation of the bipolaris. Fungal hyphae were detected in corneal scrapings, and repeated cultures were positive for this fungi. Some people may experience hay fever, asthma and or allergic fungal sinusitis. A phylogenetic analysis of the genera bipolaris and curvularia has resulted in a realignment of several species. At least eight species of this genus have been reported from opportunistic diseases in humans ranging from mild skin and. Cutaneous curvularia infection of the forearm mdedge. Service pack for proliant hewlett packard enterprise. New species and records of bipolaris and curvularia from thailand.
Curvularia is a hyphomycete found in plants and soil of tropical and temperate countries. Curvularia protuberata is a species of fungus in the family pleosporaceae. Curvularia leaf spot is caused by several fungi in the genus curvularia. Cochliobolus lunatus is a fungal plant pathogen that can cause disease in humans and other animals. Clinical importance of the genus curvularia 159 india, karnataka october 1985september 1988 67 2 2. Stereoscopic images of various bermudagrass leaf symptomatology. Evaluation of pathogenicity of bipolaris and curvularia spp. Curvulamine, a new antibacterial alkaloid incorporating.
Over the last decades, endophytic fungi represent a new source of pharmacologically active secondary metabolites based on the underlying assumption that they live symbiotically within their plant host. It is associated with open globe injuries and is a common cause of secondary fungal keratitis after diagnostic aspiration. Curvularia is a genus of fungi that mostly consists of plant pathogens, although several of its species can be harmful to humans as well. Invasive curvularia infection in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients and in neonates has been described 1, 2. Find related pest control products, articles and questions on curvularia spp. Curvularia lunata is a saprobic dematiaceous mould that resides primarily in soil ellis, 1966. Identification of curvularia lunata by polymerase chain. In some cases, curvularia can also cause disease in humans or animals.
The fungal genus curvularia includes numerous plant pathogens and some emerging opportunistic pathogens of humans. The term black mold also toxic black mold is not scientific but is widely used by the media to usually reference stachybotrys molds. I, ii and iii represent novel lineages in curvularia. First described as acrothecium lunata by wakker and went in 1898, curvularia was not documented as a human pathogen until 1959, when it was isolated from a mycetoma. Curvularia species from discoloured grains from hyderabad. The genus curvularia contains about 80 species, which are mostly soil or plant pathogens. Three genera, cochliobolus, bipolaris and curvularia form a complex that contains many plant pathogens, mostly on grasses poaceae with a worldwide distribution.
These fungi have been increasingly recognized as causing cutaneous, ocular, respiratory, and central nervous system infections in humans, but have been infrequently documented as pathogens in the veterinary literature. The majority of curvularia species exist as grass pathogens or as saprobes occurring on plant material, dung and soil. Additional putative viruses were also detected from phoma in the same study, including a putative partitivirus, two putative chrysoviruses, and two putative totiviruses. In the present study, a new endophytic fungus was isolated from rauwolfia macrophylla, a medicinal plant from cameroon. Morphological and molecular characterization of curvularia. Curvularia diseases produce irregularly shaped patches of thinned turf, often coalescing to affect larger areas. Recent studies have shown that morphological identification does not correlate with molecular identification manamgoda et al. Download csv file this work is licensed under a creative commons attributionnoncommercialsharealike 3. Evaluation of pathogenicity of bipolaris and curvularia. Fungal peritonitis associated with curvularia geniculata and. Curvularia lunata poses an inhalation and a deep skin dermal inoculation health risk to persons with week immune system. Members of the genus curvularia are melaninproducing dematiaceous fungi of increasing clinical importance as causal agents of both local and invasive infections. A case of mycotic keratitis due to curvularia senegalensis is reported.
Furthermore, the species most commonly reported from humans, c. There is no clear morphological boundary between the asexual genera bipolaris and curvularia, and some species show. Fatal cerebral phaeohyphomycosis due to curvularia lunata. Gladiolus curvularia leaf spot cause curvularia gladioli formerly curvularia lunata, a fungus that has been reported from oregon on gladiolus the disease is favored by warm, wet conditions.
Of these the endornavirus and the second set of chrysoviruslike dsrnas were also identified from both phoma spp. Curvularia lunata is a widespread contaminant of seed crops. The novel species described in this study is shown in bold. Bioactive secondary metabolites from new endophytic fungus. Curvularia has a downy or suedelike texture and may be a medium shade of brown to dark brown or nearly black in color. Culvaria species, infection, treatment and removal mold. Rinaldi mg, phillips p, schwartz jg, winn re, holt gr, shagets fw, elrod j, nishioka g, aufdemorte tb. Aug 25, 2012 three genera, cochliobolus, bipolaris and curvularia form a complex that contains many plant pathogens, mostly on grasses poaceae with a worldwide distribution. Exo and endoglucanase production by curvularia affinis using.1146 1564 406 1145 334 1580 1012 1588 1415 679 316 1194 471 1069 1003 835 1633 466 1024 1523 529 702 1645 1059 372 554 674 1648 93 1486 1258 689 1599 1492 1100 1226 1197 955 557 30 613 833